Macdonald, Sir John Alexander


Macdonald, Sir John Alexander
(1815-1891)
   H Attends Charlottetown Conference, 1864, and proposes union of all the provinces, 178; premier of first Dominion Cabinet, 198; Tupper writes him as to Howe's political plans, 207; Tilley and Tupper urge him to visit Nova Scotia, 209; visits Halifax with Sir Georges Cartier, Peter Mitchell, and William Macdougall, 210; Acadian Recorder suggests violence, 210; Howe denounces the suggestion, 210-212; arrives in Halifax, and guest of Sir Hastings Doyle, 213; meets Howe, 213; appears before committee of Legislature, 213-214; urges Howe to put an end to the agitation for repeal of the union, 215-218; persuades Howe to enter Dominion Cabinet, 225; his public letters, 257; contrasted with Howe, 287; correspondence with Howe on Pacific Railway policy, 299-300. R His University Bill, 1847--its terms, 155-157; withdrawn, 156; referred to, 161; amends Separate School Bill, 231; supports Ryerson's stand as to separate schools, 233. D And the Pacific Scandal, 321. C His alliance with Cartier, 31, 33; his first appearance in Parliament as an uncompromising Tory, 31; opposed to La Fontaine, 32; votes against settlement of Seigniorial Tenure, 32; opposes Indemnity Bill, 32; and the Pacific Scandal, 53; his resignation, 53; at Quebec Conference--favours legislative union of provinces, 57; defends proposed constitution, 59-60; forms first Dominion administration, 67; resists demand for disallowance of New Brunswick Act abolishing separate schools, 74; sympathizes with Roman Catholic minority, 76; presents Militia Bill, 1862, 87; helps Cartier to establish political union, 100; freedom from racial or religious prejudice, 100; his qualities, 101-102; strained relations with Cartier, 102-103; Cartier's knowledge of service to, 111; receives knighthood, 124, 129; explains Wolseley's quarrel with Cartier, 130. E Becomes receiver-general in Sherwood ministry, 43; his statesmanlike qualities, 43-44; re-elected, 1848, 50; his political sagacity, 110; rivalry with George Brown, 114; on provincial representation, 118; on the dissolution of Parliament in 1853, 127; on the Representation Bill, 132, 133; Liberal-Conservative party owed its birth to his inspiration, 137; persuades Sir Allan MacNab to agree to coalition government, 139, 141; attorney-general in MacNab-Morin ministry, 140; his views on Clergy Reserves, 163; takes charge of bill for secularization of the Clergy Reserves, 168; Hincks enters his ministry, 223; one of the builders of the British Empire--honours conferred upon him, 225; monuments erected to his memory, 226. B Relations with George Brown, x; leads his party, 42; frames bill for settlement of Clergy Reserves, 60; reveals political sagacity, 69; on the character of the union, 82; bitter relations with George Brown, 87-91; offers seat in Cabinet to John Sandfield Macdonald, 100; the "Double Shuffle," 107-108; moves want of confidence in Sandfield Macdonald government, 1863, 146; Brown's motion for constitutional changes, 1864, takes him by surprise, 150; his account of negotiations between George Brown and government as to Confederation, 151, 154-156; his connection with, 152,. 154-155; announces agreement, 153, 160; favours nominative Senate, 164; describes new constitution, in Confederation debate, 170-171; announces in Parliament decision of government to carry Confederation at once and send mission to England, 182; explains intentions of government, 183; on defence of Canada, 183, 184-185; goes to England, 186; relations with George Brown, 189-192; asked to form government, 1865, 189; interview with Brown, 189-191; his proposal that Belleau be premier accepted by Brown, 191; virtual leader of government, 191; charged with using Brown as a stepping-stone to his own political ambition, 199; benefits by Brown's entry into ministry, 199, 200; Holton describes his path as "studded all along by the gravestones of his slaughtered colleagues," 201; on friendly terms with Holton, 202; his essential conservatism, 202; relations with Macdougall and Howland, 202, 209; with Joseph Howe, 203-206, 210; his ideal of a legislative union, 207; anomalous position of his Liberal colleagues, 209-210; his government overthrown, 210, 235. BL Co-operates in founding United Empire Association, 228; elected in 1844, 252; enters ministry as receiver-general, 276; re-elected, 279; offers Baldwin chief-justiceship of Common Pleas, 357; Hincks in his Cabinet, 359. Md Assigned foremost place among Canadian statesmen, i; national recognition of his services after his death by creation of peerage for his widow, i; memorial tablet in St. Paul's Cathedral, and statues in Canadian cities, i; his personal popularity, i-ii; his personality made Confederation possible, ii; Canada's debt to him, iii-iv; his birth and ancestry, 1; brought to Canada in 1820, 1; boyhood days at Kingston and on the Bay of Quinté, 2; his debt to his mother, her strong personality, 2; educated at Kingston Grammar School, 3; Mowat's tribute, 3; studies law, 4-5; called to the bar, 1836, 5; begins practice at age of twenty-one, 5; Oliver Mowat and Alexander Campbell students in his office, 6; called out as a volunteer in Rebellion of 1837, 7; defends Schoultz and Ashley, 8-9; his first visit to England, 1842, 9; takes Alexander Campbell into partnership, 9; elected alderman for Kingston, 10; marries his cousin, Miss Isabella Clark, Sept. 1, 1843, 10; their children, 10; enters public life, 1854, as member for Kingston, 11-12; his firm belief from the beginning that Canada's prosperity depended on permanent connection with the mother country, 12; impelling motives of his long public career, 13; unsettled problems in 1844, 13-14; Confederation movement, 14; difficulties of his position, 15-16; his election address, 23; takes little part in discussions during his first session, 25; Draper recommends him for position of commissioner of crown lands, 26; had no sympathy with political creed of Family Compact, 27; becomes receiver-general, 27; his views on university endowment, 28-29; Alexander Campbell's letter to, 31; opposes Rebellion Losses Bill, 36; refuses to join the annexation movement, 40; strong supporter of British American League, 40; acts as moderating force in conflict over Rebellion Losses Bill, 42, 43; his character contrasted with George Brown's, 53, 54; conceives idea of Liberal-Conservative party, 62, 63; appointed attorney-general for Upper Canada, 63; introduces bill for secularization of Clergy Reserves, 65; Pope's pen-portrait of his appearance and character, 73; supports measure proposing to make Legislative Council elective, 75; has no desire and makes no effort to hasten Sir Allan MacNab's resignation, though circumstances force him into leadership, 76-77; resigns from the MacNab-Taché ministry, 78; reasons for resignation, 79, 80; forms an administration with Taché, May 24, 1856, 80; his quarrel with George Brown, 80-81; challenged by Colonel Rankin, 81-82; his views on the separate school system, 82; on the resignation of Taché, forms an administration with Cartier, 83; becomes premier of the province of Canada on Nov. 26, 1857, 83; dissolves House and appeals to people on questions of separate schools and representation by population, 84; makes proposition to Sandfield Macdonald, which is rejected, 84, 85; forms administration with Cartier as premier, 86; the "Double Shuffle," 86, 87; becomes less opposed to representation by population, 89; forms administration with Sir E. P. Taché, which lasts only a few weeks, 90; buries the hatchet and forms coalition with Brown to work for Confederation, 93, 100-102; anticipates results of Confederation, 103; attends Charlottetown and Quebec Conferences, 104-114; though strongly in favour of legislative union, modifies his views after discussion at Quebec Conference, and accepts scheme of a federal union, 107-108, 245; introduces in Parliament the resolutions adopted at Quebec Conference, 118, 119; one of commissioners to British government in regard to Confederation, 120; upon death of Taché, is called upon to form a ministry, but Brown refusing to act with him, or with Cartier, they sit together under the nominal presidency of Sir Narcisse Belleau, 122, 123; his answer to Lord Monck on delay in Confederation, 124; his wariness and skill in presenting Confederation resolutions, 126, 127; made a K. C. B. in recognition of his services in Confederation negotiations, 128, 267, 344; first prime minister of Dominion of Canada, 131; his second marriage, 131; granted a special audience by the queen, 132; returns to Canada, 132; difficulties in formation of first Dominion Cabinet, 133; list of members, 134-135; his party adopts name of Liberal-Conservative, 138; seeks able colleagues, 139, 140; results of first Dominion election, 141; sends Tupper to oppose Howe and his movement for repeal, 143; visits Halifax for purpose of winning Howe over to Confederation, 144; Howe persuaded to enter Dominion Cabinet, 145; acts passed by first Dominion Parliament, 151; on verge of ministerial crisis over Intercolonial Railway, 153, 154; his desire to annex North-West Territories, 156; difficulties in accomplishing it, 157-163; introduces bill for establishment and government of province of Manitoba, 161; taken seriously ill, 161; returns to Ottawa, 163; goes to Washington as member of commission, 163, 165, 169; his reluctance to become a member of the commission, 171-173; objects to any permanent sale of the fisheries, 174-175; his connection with, and reasons for withdrawal of Fenian Raid claims, 175-178; on decision in San Juan boundary dispute, 179-181; on the fisheries question, 182-184; signs Washington Treaty, 185; moves ratification of certain clauses of Washington Treaty, 186-190; general election of 1872, 193 et seq.; the "Pacific Scandal," 200 et seq.; his defence, 208, 209; sends in his resignation, 210; leads opposition, 211; his resolution in favour of a national policy, 217, 225; puts the new policy before the country, 220-223; urges preferential trade with mother country, 227; again in power, 1878, 228; inaugurates the national policy and reverts to transcontinental railway scheme, 234; crosses continent on Canadian Pacific Railway, 238; firm in his conviction that Riel should be hanged, 243, 244, 280; brings Letellier difficulty before Parliament, 248-250; Ontario boundary dispute, 254-258; introduces Franchise Act of 1885, 258-260; country's devotion to, 262, 263; qualities which maintained loyalty and devotion of his followers, 263-265; Confederation honours cause a break in his friendship with Cartier, 267, 268; introduces bill to adjust representation in House of Commons, 273; election of 1882, 273-276; resolutions on home rule in Ireland, 277; contrasted with Blake, 277-279; election of 1887, 279-283; adoption of jubilee address to queen, 283; compromises with Canadian Pacific Railway over their monopoly of transportation, 285; takes a constitutional stand on Jesuits' Estates Act, 289; commercial union policy, 291 et seq.; contemplates a general election, 300-302; takes steps to renew commercial intercourse with United States, 303; his last appeal to electors of Dominion, 304-311; makes the most of contents of Farrer pamphlet, 313-314; throws himself with energy into election campaign of 1891, 314; for fourth time his government is sustained, 315; receives a chill while attending demonstration at Napanee, 319; attends opening of the session, 320; suffers a slight stroke of paralysis, 320; his last appearance in the House, 320; suffers a final stroke on May 29, 1891, 321; and dies on June 6, 1891, 321; funeral, 321, 322; tribute from Queen Victoria, 322; memorial service in Westminster Abbey, and tablet to his memory in St. Paul's Cathedral, 322-323; a summing up of his work and influence, 333-353; a practical politician, 333-336; his political methods, 335-338; his personal magnetism, 339; anecdotes of, 340-341; not an orator, but an effective debater, 341-342; proposed preferential trade in 1879, 342; in favour of Imperial federation, 343; letter to, from Cecil Rhodes, 349; kept in touch with Imperial affairs, 344; Imperial honours bestowed on, 344-345; a self-made man, 345; tributes to his statesmanship, 346; his sympathy with French-Canadians, 347-348; a peacemaker, 348; Lord Dufferin on, 348-349; a poor man, 349-350; sum raised for, in 1870, 351; statues to, in many Canadian cities, 351; his greatness and shortcomings, 351-353. T At Charlottetown Conference, 74, 75; at Quebec Conference, 76, 78; at Westminster Conference, 121; presented to the Queen, 124; forms first Dominion ministry, 127-128, 129; forms second ministry, 136; his national policy, 137.
   Bib.: Pope, Memoirs of Sir John Alexander Macdonald; Macpherson, Life of Macdonald; Collins, Life and Times of Macdonald; Adam, Life and Career of Macdonald; Hopkins, Life of Macdonald; Biggar, Anecdotal Life of Macdonald; Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Taylor, Brit. Am.; Cyc. Am. Biog.

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  • Macdonald,Sir John Alexander — Mac·don·ald (mĭk dŏnʹəld), Sir John Alexander. 1815 1891. Canadian politician and the first prime minister of the Dominion of Canada (1867 1873 and 1878 1891). He is considered the organizer of the Canadian confederation, established in 1867. * * …   Universalium

  • Macdonald, Sir John (Alexander) — born Jan. 11, 1815, Glasgow, Scot. died June 6, 1891, Ottawa, Ont., Can. Canadian politician, first prime minister of the Dominion of Canada (1867–73, 1878–91). He immigrated to Canada as a child and practiced law in Kingston, Upper Canada (now… …   Universalium

  • Macdonald, Sir John (Alexander) — (11 ene. 1815, Glasgow, Escocia–6 jun. 1891, Ottawa, Ontario, Canadá). Político canadiense, el primero que ocupó el cargo de primer ministro del Dominio de Canadá (1867–73, 1878–91). Inmigró a Canadá cuando niño y a partir de 1836 ejerció como… …   Enciclopedia Universal

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  • Sir John Alexander Macdonald — n. (1815 1891) Scotish born Canadian statesman, first prime minister of Canada (1867 1873, 1878 1891) …   English contemporary dictionary

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